Aggression Vs. Punitiveness

Virat Kohli’s aggressive behaviour on the cricket field evokes both admiration and revulsion in us. Recently, the famous actor Nasseruddin Shah described Kohli as the “worst behaved player”. Needless to say, this created its own chain reaction against Mr. Shah. While Mr. Shah may have been more direct and upfront, the unease about Kohli’s aggression has also been expressed by several others.

A couple of months back, when Kohli had reacted to a fan by asking him to leave the country, it created quite an uproar. This was widely interpreted as jingoistic and intolerance towards a fan’s preference for a foreign player. Kohli did clarify that he was not objecting to the fan’s preference for a foreign player, but reacting to the disdain in the expression “these Indian players”. However, Kohli’s clarification was generally ignored.

I have no idea as to what kind of person is Virat Kohli. What seems reasonably apparent is that he is passionate, ambitious, intense, competitive and expressive. Beyond that it is difficult to say anything about him. To best of my knowledge, he has never resorted to physical/verbal abuse or been involved in drunken brawls or been accused of unfair practices like ball tampering etc. He has rarely been a “bad loser”(blaming others) and has often been generous in his praise of his opponents. Thus it is difficult to associate punitiveness with his aggression.

Aggression and Punitiveness may look alike but they are quite different from each other. The most important difference of course is, that in Punitiveness, there is a clear INTENT to harm/hurt the other. The motive for causing the hurt/harm may vary ( e.g. teaching a lesson or settling a score etc.) but Punitiveness is a MOTIVATED ACT.

As against this Aggression is an EXPRESSIVE ACT. Here, the other is incidental or in a sense irrelevant. It is essentially a release of one’s own aggressive impulses, which may have got triggered from fear, insecurity, frustration or even a sense of relief and achievement. This may cause harm/hurt to the other, but it arises from the insensitivity/callousness of the aggressor rather than an active intent.

Aggression is often deployed in the service of Punitiveness, but not always so. Seemingly non-aggressive behaviours (e.g. sarcasm, mockery, slight, disdain, dismissal etc.) can be equally effective in punishing the other. In fact, they carry an additional advantage as they are very difficult to counter. One often comes across instances when people justify their insults and ridicules as “just joking”. Thus non-aggressive act of punishment, allow the perpetrator to get away without taking any responsibility in the matter.

Aggression and Punitiveness may overlap with each other, but not all Aggression is punitive, and not all Punitiveness is blatantly aggressive. The distinction between the two is particularly important in the Indian context.There is plenty of evidence to suggest that we Indians have a very uneasy relationship with Aggression. We either tend to deny/suppress our aggressive impulses OR discharge them indiscriminately. Consequently-

a) It becomes extremely difficult for us to harness the positive potential of aggression.

b) Whenever we are faced with aggression ( either in ourselves or in others), we become punitive(towards self and/or other) and

c) Much of our punitiveness gets expressed through seemingly non-aggressive ways.

Thus when some one like Virat Kohli comes along, who is able to deploy his aggressive impulses to his advantage (I have rarely seen him play a shot in anger) without becoming punitive towards himself or others, we experience strong ambivalence. On one hand, he becomes a symbol through which our own aggressive impulses are finding expression, and on the other, all our demons about aggression begin to haunt us. We want to both admire him as also punish him for doing what we are unable to do ourselves. Just as people who do not know how to stand up for themselves feel both elated and upset, when they see someone else doing it, so do we when we see a Virat Kohli showing his raw aggression without getting consumed by it. We want to admire him, emulate him and also punish him.

Strange as it may seem, there is perhaps an inverse relationship between Aggression and Punitiveness. The more discomfort that we have with our aggressive impulses, the more punitive we are likely to become. And the more we grace our aggression, the less punitive we are likely to be.

I have often come across people who are extremely aggressive but not punitive, just as I have come across people who seem non-aggressive, but are extremely punitive. I have also found that generally we are a lot more tolerant of the non-aggressive punitive people, and a lot more critical of the aggressive ones, even if they are non-punitive. What has been your experience?

Honest beneficiaries of a Corrupt System

Over the last two weeks, we have seen a significant shift in the opinions of “experts” on demonetisation. In the first few days, virtually every newspaper, T.V. commentator, financial expert  was busy  hailing it  as a “bold and courageous” step which will usher a new era of economic progress and social justice. This was followed by the phase of “good move but not well planned/properly implemented”. We are now moving towards the phase where the wisdom and effectiveness of the move is being strongly questioned and several people are calling it a whimsical decision of a dictator.

So what has happened ? The most obvious explanation is that initial euphoria is invariably met with disappointment and the pendulum swings the other way. This perhaps is largely true but why the initial euphoria to begin with ? Why not shock and anger ? The answer perhaps lies in the fallacious belief that it is only the “dishonest” which reap the benefits of a corrupt system. Hence when the move is seen as an attack on the dishonest, the premise is that it will not affect the rest of us who are honest . As the reality begins to sink in that it is the fundamental structure which is being shaken, the euphoria begins to turn into a rude shock.

Most of us regard ourselves as honest and  and perhaps are seen as such by others. . We may admit to paying an occasional bribe, trade a few favours,  make purchases without taking a cash-memo, or even inflate some of our expenses in our I.T. returns etc., but none of it shakes our basic idea that “I am an honest person who is forced to indulge in a few questionable activities because of systemic deficiencies” In fact, I have even heard some politicians claim that they are forced to use illegitimate cash because if they don’t ,they will be at a definite disadvantage vis. a vis. their rivals. Thus our basic stance is that of a victim, or a saviour but never the perpetrator . The reality is perhaps a lot more complex and each one of us is simultaneously all three.

This simultaneity of the victim,saviour and perpetrator was brilliantly portrayed by Vijay Tendulkar in his famous play “Kamla”. The protagonist of the play Jaisingh Jadhav is a ambitious journalist who buys a woman Kamla and presents her in a press conference in order to expose the human trafficking racket. Not merely is Jaisingh totally insensitive to Kamla’s discomfiture and humiliation but his relationship with his own wife is akin to a “master-slave” relationship. Eventually, Jaisingh is fired by the owners of the paper presumably because he dared to take on powerful vested interests.

In Jaisingh we have a very interesting character . He is not a bad or dishonest person. He does not indulge in any wrong-doing, he neither mistreats his wife nor Kamla, who he actually rescues. His only folly is his utter self-absorption and insensitivity to everyone else. He starts off trying to be a saviour, becomes a perpetrator and finally a victim. This perhaps is the bitter reality of all  systemic oppressions- they make every constituent into all three, thereby ensuring that everyone has a stake in the preservation of the system and its prevalent inequities. Thus whenever the basic foundation is destabilised it is met with ambivalence.What we are witnessing today is a very mammoth shake up, but the ambivalence can be witnessed in almost all instance of fundamental departures including changes in families, communities and work organisations.

Generally, this ambivalence is polarised creating a split between those who are “for” the change and those who are “against ” it.  Inevitably both sides lay claim to the victim/ saviour location for themselves and attribute the perpetrator location to the other side. This is quite evident in the present situation, where everyone is talking “on behalf” of the “common man” , who by common consensus is the victim with each side looking at the other side as the perpetrator.

This creates interesting double-binds for both sides. For example, in the present situation, any one expressing doubts about the government’s decision runs the risk of being branded as a “defender of black-money”. Similarly, any one who supports the move runs the risk of being branded as “insensitive to the sufferings of the underprivileged “. Thus all expression becomes guarded, making it very difficult to assess as to how people are actually feeling and what do they really think. Bereft of any real connect with the ground reality, people at the helm of affairs are forced to pretend that they are completely “in-control”, and what ever is unfolding  is as per the plan. If they course-correct, they can be charged with unpreparedness and inconsistency; and if they don’t ,they can  be charged with insensitivity and being stubborn.

This of course is a massive exercise, but anyone who has handled change at even much smaller scale will know that once a process is set into motion, it acquires its own momentum. No matter how well prepared one is, the unforeseen will always have to be contended with. The only thing that one can do is to engage with the “emergent reality” in as authentic a way as possible. In order to do this, the first step has to be give  up the victim-perpetrator game, which makes any meaningful dialogue and engagement an impossibility.

To conclude, issues of personal honesty and dishonesty become irrelevant when one is focussed on systemic transformation. Invariably,a focus on personal honesty/dishonesty   ends up with musical chairs between Victim, Perpetrator and Saviour. It may be more meaningful to look at systemic issues which are heavily loaded in favour of certain class/categories of people and where by even the honest and respectable become beneficiaries of systemic corruption.